Energy & Cost Impacts: Air-source Heat Pumps

The plots below show estimated cooling energy savings, heating energy savings, cooling cost savings, and heating cost savings relative to a minimum-efficiency ASHP for the ASHP product lines displayed on this website. The estimated savings ranges are shown for a variety of building types in each California climate zone. Each colored horizontal bar in the plot represents the estimated range of savings across the ASHP units that make up the given product line. The complexity of actual ASHP systems and the variety of assumptions used in modeling the estimated savings ranges means that the savings ranges displayed here should be taken as illustrative estimates only. To obtain actual estimates for your specific building, please consult an accredited mechanical contractor or engineer.

The energy use results were obtained using EnergyPlus (a US Department of Energy (DOE)-supported building energy simulation tool that is widely used for energy modeling) and DOE commercial building prototypes. Full-year, hourly-time-step simulation data were generated for sixteen California climate zones using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY3) weather data. These weather data provide a representation of median (or typical) weather. For each building type, four vintages were simulated: pre-1980, post-1980, 2004, and ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2016. The DOE commercial building prototypes were modified to use packaged heat pumps in place of packaged air conditioners. The integrated energy efficiency ration (IEER) metric was calculated for each simulated system, and the cooling energy consumption of the unit was scaled to the 2023 IEER minimum standard to represent baseline energy use in the current market. Similarly, on the heating side, the coefficient of performance (COP) metric for each simulated system was used to scale the heating energy consumption of the unit to the 2023 COP minimum standard. For each building type, the energy use by all units in the building was summed and divided by the conditioned floor area to generate an energy use intensity in kWh/sq-ft. These data were summed to get cooling and heating energy use for each building for the summer and winter months (with summer months defined as May through September and winter months defined as October through April). Cooling and heating energy savings for each ASHP unit and building were estimated based on these values. The energy savings for each building vintage were then averaged using building vintage weights developed from the Energy Information Agency Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). Finally, the cost savings estimates were calculated by multiplying the summer and winter energy savings by the summer and winter energy prices for California, respectively, and then adding the resulting seasonal cost savings together.

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Graphs' Legend Stacked Graphs' Legend Stacked
ASHP_Arcata_Cooling Cost Savings_top
ASHP_Arcata_Cooling Energy Savings_top
ASHP_Arcata_Heating Cost Savings_top
ASHP_Arcata_Heating Energy Savings_top
Santa Rosa_Cooling-Cost-Savings-top
Santa Rosa_Cooling-Energy-Savings-top
Santa Rosa_Heating-Cost-Savings-top
Santa Rosa_Heating-Energy-Savings-top
ASHP_Oakland_Cooling Cost Savings_top
ASHP_Oakland_Cooling Energy Savings_top
ASHP_Oakland_Heating Cost Savings_top
ASHP_Oakland_Heating Energy Savings_top
San Jose_Cooling Cost Saving-top
San Jose_Cooling Energy Savings-top
San Jose_Heating Cost Savings-top
San Jose_Heating Energy Savings-top
Santa Maria_Cooling Energy Savings-top
Santa Maria_Heating Cost Savings-top
Santa Maria_Heating Energy Savings-top
Santa Maria_Cooling Cost Savings-top
ASHP_Long Beach_Cooling Cost Savings_top
ASHP_Long Beach_Cooling Energy Savings_top
ASHP_Long Beach_Heating Cost Savings_top
ASHP_Long Beach_Heating Energy Savings_top
San Diego_Cooling Cost Savings-top
San Diego_Cooling Energy Savings-top
San Diego_Heating Cost Savings-top
San Diego_Heating Energy Savings-top
ASHP_Fullerton_Cooling Cost Savings_top
ASHP_Fullerton_Cooling Energy Savings_top
ASHP_Fullerton_Heating Cost Savings_top
ASHP_Fullerton_Heating Energy Savings_top
ASHP_Burbank_Cooling Cost Savings_top
ASHP_Burbank_Cooling Energy Savings_top
ASHP_Burbank_Heating Cost Savings_top
ASHP_Burbank_Heating Energy Savings_top
ASHP_RIverside_Cooling Cost Savings_top
ASHP_RIverside_Cooling Energy Savings_top
ASHP_RIverside_Heating Cost Savings_top
ASHP_RIverside_Heating Energy Savings_top
ASHP_Red Bluff_Cooling Cost Savings_top
ASHP_Red Bluff_Cooling Energy Savings_top
ASHP_Red Bluff_Heating Cost Savings_top
ASHP_Red Bluff_Heating Energy Savings_top
Sacramento_Cooling Cost Savings-top
Sacramento_Cooling Energy Savings-top
Sacramento_Heating Cost Savings-top
Sacramento_Heating Energy Savings-top
ASHP_Fresno_Cooling Cost Savings_top
ASHP_Fresno_Cooling Energy Savings_top
ASHP_Fresno_Heating Cost Savings_top
ASHP_Fresno_Heating Energy Savings_top
ASHP_Palmdale_Cooling Cost Savings_top
ASHP_Palmdale_Cooling Energy Savings_top
ASHP_Palmdale_Heating Cost Savings_top
ASHP_Palmdale_Heating Energy Savings_top
ASHP_Palm Springs_Cooling Cost Savings_top
ASHP_Palm Springs_Cooling Energy Savings_top
ASHP_Palm Springs_Heating Cost Savings_top
ASHP_Palm Springs_Heating Energy Savings_top